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O Interfata grafica "buna la orice"!

Doru Sandu ex. YO9CXY

De data aceasta revin cu un soft experimentat, construit dupa exemplele grafice din bibliotecile ESP32,

si modelat in asa fel incat sa poata fi usor inteles si modificat pentru nevoile oricui.

Asa cum mi s-a sugerat, incerc sa nu reinventez “apa calda” dar sper ca articolele mele sa vina in sprijinul celor mai putin priceputi sau incepatorilor. “Experimentatii” pot interveni cu idei constructive.

Aplicatia se vrea o interfata grafica ce poate fi folosita pentru nevoile radioamatorilor care vor sa-si construiasca un S-metru sau o tastatura deosebita, sa foloseasca comunicatia WiFi in aplicatii sau sa controleze parametrii dispozitivelor construite in jurul placilor ESP32-S. Recomand aceasta placa pentru performantele ei, pentru usurinta programarii cu Arduino IDE si pentru faptul ca poate folosi o antenna exterioara conectata cu foarte mare usurinta.

Articolul anterior are toate elementele Hardware de conectare a unui ESP32 cu un Display ILI 9341 SPI.

Nu mai revin la acest aspect intrucat scriptul care urmeaza contine din nou conexiunile pinilor, in

schimb voi posta o noua imagine cu Pin Out-ul microcontrollerului in idea ca studiind-o cu atentie veti constata unele restrictii in folosirea intarilor si iesirilor GPIO.

 

 

Prezentarea Software:

Softul prezentat in continuare va fi explicat pe larg cu toate amanuntele in asa fel incat cu putin efort, va putea fi inteles ca logica a functionarii. Am folosit si adaptat rutine din exemple publicate in bibliotecile

ESP32 existente la adresa:   https://github.com/Bodmer/TFT_eSPI

Keypad_240x320 si TFT_Meters sunt sursele de baza pentru Interfata Software prezentata, si care dupa cum am mai spus, poate fi usor modificata la nevoie.

Comentariile sunt scrise in EN cu scopul de a face posibila intelegerea de catre o categorie mai larga de cititori. Iata fisierul .txt care trebuie redenumit .ino pentru prelucrare in Arduino IDE:

 

///*******************************************************************///

///******************* GOOD INTERFACE TO ANYTHING ********************///

///*************** by DORU SANDU / gocomraex@gmail.com****************///

///************************************ ex.YO9CXY ********************///

///*******************************************************************///

#include <WiFi.h>

#include <SPI.h>

#include <TFT_eSPI.h>       // Hardware-specific library

/*

// Pin configuration for the ILI9341 display/2.8inch & ESP32 S Dev Board

#define TFT_CS     5    // Pin-29 ESP32 "VSPISS" (GPIO_05)

#define TFT_DC     33   // PIN-8 ESP32 "ADC1_5" (GPIO_33)

//#define TFT_MISO 19     // MISO---> ESP32 pin 31 "VSPI_MISO" (GPIO_19)

#define TFT_MOSI   23   // MOSI---> ESP32 pin 37 "VSPI_MOSI" (GPIO_23)

#define TFT_SCK    18   // SCLK---> ESP32 pin 30 "VSP_ISCK"  (GPIO_18)

#define TFT_RST    32   // PIN-7 ESP32 "ADC1_4" (GPIO_32)

#define TOUCH_CS   27   // PIN-11 ESP32 "ADC2_7" (GPIO_27)

*/

TFT_eSPI tft = TFT_eSPI();  // Invoke custom library

/*

#define ILI9341_BLACK       0x0000

#define ILI9341_NAVY        0x000F

#define ILI9341_DARKGREEN   0x03E0

#define ILI9341_DARKCYAN    0x03EF

#define ILI9341_MAROON      0x7800

#define ILI9341_PURPLE      0x780F

#define ILI9341_OLIVE       0x7BE0

#define ILI9341_LIGHTGREY   0xC618

#define ILI9341_DARKGREY    0x7BEF

#define ILI9341_BLUE        0x001F

#define ILI9341_GREEN       0x07E0

#define ILI9341_CYAN        0x07FF

#define ILI9341_RED         0xF800

#define ILI9341_MAGENTA     0xF81F

#define ILI9341_YELLOW      0xFFE0

#define ILI9341_WHITE       0xFFFF

#define ILI9341_ORANGE      0xFD20

#define ILI9341_GREENYELLOW 0xAFE5

#define ILI9341_PINK        0xF81F

*/

#define TFT_GREY            0x5AEB

#define TEST_LED 15       // LED

const char* wifi_ssid = "Denumirea retelei locale WiFi";

const char* wifi_psw = "Parola retelei locale WiFi";

int16_t previousRSSI = 0;

//******************************//

 

// Keypad start position, key sizes and spacing

#define KEY_X 75          // Center of key W

#define KEY_Y 230         // Center of key Y

#define KEY_W 60          // Width of Keys

#define KEY_H 30          // Height of Keys

#define KEY_SPACING_X 5   // X gap !!!Used for multiple columns

#define KEY_SPACING_Y 5   // Y gap !!!Used for multiple rows

#define KEY_TEXTSIZE 1    // Font size multiplier

//******************************//

 

// Using two fonts since numbers are nice when bold

#define LABEL1_FONT &FreeSansOblique12pt7b    // Key label font 1

#define LABEL2_FONT &FreeSansBold12pt7b       // Key label font 2

 

// Create 9 keys for the keypad - Number of Keys / Maxim Number of Characters

char keyLabel[9][5] = {"-sta", "spk+", "sta+", "   ", "stop", "   ", "-pwr", "spk-", "pwr+"};

uint16_t keyColor[9] = {TFT_RED, TFT_ORANGE, TFT_DARKGREEN,TFT_BLACK, TFT_GREY, TFT_BLACK,TFT_BLUE, TFT_MAGENTA, TFT_NAVY};

 

// Invoke the TFT_eSPI button class and create all the button objects

TFT_eSPI_Button key[9];

WiFiServer server(80);

//******************************//

/*

   Available ESP32 RF power parameters:

   For 19.5dBm of output, highest. Supply current ~150mA

    WIFI_POWER_19_5dBm    // 19.5dBm  (80)

    WIFI_POWER_19dBm      // 19dBm    (78)

    WIFI_POWER_18_5dBm    // 18.5dBm  (72)

    WIFI_POWER_17dBm      // 17dBm    (66)

    WIFI_POWER_15dBm      // 15dBm    (60)

    WIFI_POWER_13dBm      // 13dBm    (52)

    WIFI_POWER_11dBm      // 11dBm    (44)

    WIFI_POWER_8_5dBm     //  8dBm    (34)

    WIFI_POWER_7dBm       //  7dBm    (28)

    WIFI_POWER_5dBm       //  5dBm    (20)

    WIFI_POWER_2dBm       //  2dBm    (8)

    WIFI_POWER_MINUS_1dBm // -1dBm    (NEVER USE FOR PROGRAMMING !!!)

   For -1dBm of output, lowest. Supply current ~120mA

*/

const int wifiPowerValues[] =

{

  WIFI_POWER_2dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_5dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_7dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_8_5dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_11dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_13dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_15dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_17dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_18_5dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_19dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_19_5dBm

};

 

const char* wifiPowerNames[] =

{

  "WIFI_POWER_2dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_5dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_7dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_8_5dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_11dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_13dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_15dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_17dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_18_5dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_19dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_19_5dBm"

};

 

int IndexPower = 10; // Initial value for wifiPowerTx (0 to 10)

//int valueSearched = wifiPowerValues[IndexPower];     // Display Power in dBm

//const char* ConstPower = wifiPowerNames[IndexPower];  // Display the name of the constant

//******************************//

#define LOOP_PERIOD 35 // Display updates every 35 ms

 

float ltx = 0;    // Saved x coord of bottom of needle

uint16_t osx = 120, osy = 120;  // Saved x & y coords

uint32_t updateTime = 0;        // Time for next update

 

int old_analog =  -999;         // Value last displayed

 

int value[6] = {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0};

int old_value[6] = { -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1};

int d = 0;

 

///***************************** SETUP *******************************///

void setup()

{

  Serial.begin(115200);         // For debug

  pinMode(TEST_LED, OUTPUT);

  tft.init();  // Inițializare ecran

  tft.setRotation(0);

  digitalWrite(TEST_LED, HIGH);

 

  // Calibrare Touch Screen

  uint16_t calibrationData[5];

  tft.fillScreen(TFT_WHITE);

  tft.setTextColor(TFT_RED);

  tft.setTextSize(2);

  tft.setCursor(40, 30, 2);

  tft.print("Calibration of");

  tft.setCursor(40, 70);

  tft.print("Display");

  tft.setTextColor(TFT_BLACK);

  tft.setCursor(40, 130);

  tft.print("Touch");

  tft.setCursor(40, 170);

  tft.print("the indicated");

  tft.setCursor(40, 210);

  tft.print("corners");

  tft.setCursor(40, 250);

  tft.print("to calibrate");

  tft.calibrateTouch(calibrationData, TFT_GREEN, TFT_RED, 15);

//******************************//

  tft.fillScreen(TFT_BLACK);

  tft.setTextColor(TFT_WHITE);

  tft.setCursor(25, 80 ,2); // How many times the text set in the previous row is enlarged

  tft.print("Radio_Receiver");

  tft.setTextSize(1);

  tft.setCursor(10, 120, 2);

  tft.printf("Connecting to '%s'\n" , wifi_ssid, wifi_psw);

  delay(2000);

  tft.fillScreen(TFT_BLACK);

  tft.setTextColor(TFT_RED);

  tft.setTextSize(2);

  tft.setCursor(20, 80 ,1);

  tft.println("WIFI Connecting!");

  delay(1000);

  Connect_to_WiFi();

  digitalWrite(TEST_LED, HIGH);

  delay(3000);

  digitalWrite(TEST_LED, LOW);

  server.begin();           // Start the HTTP server

  delay(2000);

//******************************//

    tft.fillScreen(TFT_BLACK);

    drawCustomKeypad();

    analogMeter();          // Draw analogue meter

    updateTime = millis();  // Next update time

    digitalWrite(TEST_LED, HIGH);

}

 

///****************************** LOOP *******************************///

void loop()

{

  // Print the received signal strength:

  long rssi = WiFi.RSSI();

  Serial.print("RSSI:");

  Serial.println(rssi);

 

  int16_t currentRSSI = WiFi.RSSI();

  if (currentRSSI != previousRSSI)

  {

    if (rssi >= -50)

    {tft.setTextColor(TFT_GREEN);}

 

    else

    if (rssi >= -70 && rssi < -50)

    {tft.setTextColor(TFT_WHITE);}

 

    else

    {tft.setTextColor(TFT_RED);}

 

    if (rssi = 0)

      {

        tft.fillRect(185, 255, 40, 20, TFT_BLACK);

        tft.setTextColor(TFT_RED);

        tft.setCursor(198, 273);

        tft.print("0");

      }

   

    tft.fillRect(185, 255, 40, 20, TFT_BLACK);

    tft.setCursor(185, 273);

  tft.print(WiFi.RSSI()); // Display the signal value of the correspondent

  previousRSSI = currentRSSI;

  }

//******************************//

  if (updateTime <= millis())

  {

    updateTime = millis() + LOOP_PERIOD;

 

    d += 4; if (d >= 360) d = 0;

 

    //value[0] = map(analogRead(A0), 0, 1023, 0, 100); // Test with value form Analogue 0

 

    // Create a Sine wave for testing

    value[0] = 50 + 50 * sin((d + 0) * 0.0174532925);

    value[1] = 50 + 50 * sin((d + 60) * 0.0174532925);

    value[2] = 50 + 50 * sin((d + 120) * 0.0174532925);

    value[3] = 50 + 50 * sin((d + 180) * 0.0174532925);

    value[4] = 50 + 50 * sin((d + 240) * 0.0174532925);

    value[5] = 50 + 50 * sin((d + 300) * 0.0174532925);

 

    //unsigned long t = millis();

    plotNeedle(value[0], 0);

    //Serial.println(millis()-t); // Print time taken for meter update

  }

//******************************//

// Testing the Touch Screen

  uint16_t t_x = 0, t_y = 0; // To store the touch coordinates

 

   // Pressed will be set true is there is a valid touch on the screen

    bool pressed = tft.getTouch(&t_x, &t_y);

 

    // Check if any key coordinate boxes contain the touch coordinates

    for (uint8_t b = 0; b < 9; b++)

    {

      if (pressed && key[b].contains(t_x, t_y))

    {key[b].press(true);}  // Tell the button it is pressed

 

    else

    {key[b].press(false);}  // Tell the button it is NOT pressed

    }

 

  // Add a check to execute the appropriate functions

  for (uint8_t b = 0; b < 9; b++)

  {

    if (key[b].justPressed())

    {

      if (b == 6) // RED Key

      {

      tft.fillRect(0, 175, 240, 35, TFT_BLACK);

      tft.setTextColor(TFT_BLUE);

      tft.setCursor(30, 200);

      tft.print("TouchDownButton!");

      TouchDownButton();

      }

 

      else if (b == 8) // NAVY Key

      {

      tft.fillRect(0, 175, 240, 35, TFT_BLACK);

      tft.setTextColor(TFT_NAVY);

      tft.setCursor(30, 200);

      tft.print("TouchUpButton!");

      TouchUpButton();

      }

 

// The routine can continue with Buttons: 0, 1, 2, 4 and 7

    }

 

      else if (key[b].justReleased())

      {

      tft.fillRect(0, 175, 240, 35, TFT_BLACK);

      tft.setTextColor(TFT_WHITE);

      tft.setCursor(30, 200);

      tft.print("NoTouchButton!");

    }

  }

}

 

///***************************** KEYPAD ******************************///

void drawCustomKeypad()

{

  // Draw the keys

  for (uint8_t row = 0; row < 3; row++)   // Single row

  {

    for (uint8_t col = 0; col < 3; col++) // Two columns

    {

      uint8_t b = col + row * 3;          // Indexes the current button

 

      if (b < 9) tft.setFreeFont(LABEL1_FONT);  // Check the value of "b"

      else  tft.setFreeFont(LABEL2_FONT); // If "b > 9", use (LABEL2_FONT)

/*

    KEY_X: x Coordinate of the center of the first button

    KEY_Y: y-coordinate of the center of the first button

    KEY_W: Width of the button

    KEY_H: Height of the button

    KEY_SPACING_X: Horizontal space between buttons

    KEY_SPACING_Y: Vertical space between buttons

*/

 

      key[b].initButton(&tft, KEY_X + col * (KEY_W + KEY_SPACING_X),

                              KEY_Y + row * (KEY_H + KEY_SPACING_Y), // x, y, w, h, outline, fill, text

                              KEY_W, KEY_H, TFT_WHITE, keyColor[b], TFT_WHITE,

                 keyLabel[b], KEY_TEXTSIZE);

      key[b].drawButton();

    }

  }

 

  // Display of WIFI functional parameters

  int wifiTxPower = WiFi.getTxPower();  // Read Inscribed Power

      tft.setTextColor(TFT_WHITE);

      tft.setCursor(63, 273);

      tft.print(wifiTxPower);  // Display WIFI Power

       // Other possible data to display

///tft.printf("%dPower:%s\n", IndexPower, ConstPower);

///tft.printf("%s\n", wifiPowerNames[IndexPower]); // Displays Constants Name

}

 

///************************* WIFI CONNECTED **************************///

void Connect_to_WiFi()

{

  // Waiting to connect to the WiFi network

  WiFi.begin(wifi_ssid, wifi_psw);

    for(int i = 0; i < 20 && WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED; i++)

    {

      Serial.print(".");

      tft.print("*");

      delay(500);

    }

 

  // Checking if the connection has been made

    if (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED)

    {

      tft.fillScreen(TFT_BLACK);

      tft.setTextColor(TFT_RED);

      tft.setCursor(10, 80);

      tft.print("WIFI not Connected!");

      Connect_to_WiFi();

    }

 

    else

    {

    digitalWrite(TEST_LED, LOW);

    tft.fillScreen(TFT_BLACK);

    tft.setTextColor(TFT_GREEN);

    tft.setCursor(20, 80);

    tft.println("WIFI Connected!");

 

      // Show local IP

      tft.setTextColor(TFT_WHITE);

      tft.println(" ");

      tft.println("IP local: ");

      tft.println(WiFi.localIP());

 

      // Show Correspondent IP

      tft.println(" ");

      tft.println("Correspondent IP:");

      tft.println(WiFi.gatewayIP());

 

      // Show IP P2P

      tft.println(" ");

      tft.println("Correspondent IP:");

      tft.println(WiFi.softAPIP());

    }

}

 

///*************************** WIFI POWER ****************************///

void TouchDownButton()

{

  digitalWrite(TEST_LED, LOW);

  // Check if the WiFi power can be decreased

      if (IndexPower > 0)

      {

        // Attention! Use the button's central coordinates

        tft.fillRoundRect(KEY_X - KEY_W/2, KEY_Y + KEY_H*2 - KEY_SPACING_Y, KEY_W, KEY_H, 5, TFT_LIGHTGREY);

              // Explain (fillRoundRect): (X-position_upper left corner, Y-position,

              // width, height, background color, corner radius, outline color)

        tft.drawRoundRect(KEY_X - KEY_W/2, KEY_Y + KEY_H*2 - KEY_SPACING_Y, KEY_W, KEY_H, 5, TFT_WHITE);

              // Explain (drawRoundRect): (X-position_upper left corner, Y-posi8tion,

              // width, height, background color, corner radius, outline color)

 

        IndexPower--; // Decrease the power of WiFi

      }

 

      delay(100);

    writePower();

}

//******************************//

 

void TouchUpButton()

{

  digitalWrite(TEST_LED, HIGH);

  // Check if the WiFi power can be increased

      if (IndexPower < 10)

      {

        tft.fillRoundRect(KEY_X + KEY_W + KEY_W/2 + KEY_SPACING_X*2, KEY_Y + KEY_H*2 - KEY_SPACING_Y, KEY_W, KEY_H, 5, TFT_LIGHTGREY);

        tft.drawRoundRect(KEY_X + KEY_W + KEY_W/2 + KEY_SPACING_X*2, KEY_Y + KEY_H*2 - KEY_SPACING_Y, KEY_W, KEY_H, 5, TFT_WHITE);

 

 

        IndexPower++; // Increase the power of WiFi

      }

 

      delay(100);

    writePower();

}

//******************************//

 

void writePower()

{

  switch (IndexPower)    // Read (IndexPower) Value

  {                      // Write (IndexPower) corresponding Power

    case 0:

    WiFi.setTxPower(WIFI_POWER_2dBm);

    break;

 

    case 1:

    WiFi.setTxPower(WIFI_POWER_5dBm);

    break;

 

    case 2:

    WiFi.setTxPower(WIFI_POWER_7dBm);

    break;

 

    case 3:

    WiFi.setTxPower(WIFI_POWER_8_5dBm);

    break;

 

    case 4:

    WiFi.setTxPower(WIFI_POWER_11dBm);

    break;

 

    case 5:

    WiFi.setTxPower(WIFI_POWER_13dBm);

    break;

 

    case 6:

    WiFi.setTxPower(WIFI_POWER_15dBm);

    break;

 

    case 7:

    WiFi.setTxPower(WIFI_POWER_17dBm);

    break;

 

    case 8:

    WiFi.setTxPower(WIFI_POWER_18_5dBm);

    break;

 

    case 9:

    WiFi.setTxPower(WIFI_POWER_19dBm);

    break;

 

    case 10:

    WiFi.setTxPower(WIFI_POWER_19_5dBm);

    break;

 

    default:

    WiFi.setTxPower(WIFI_POWER_13dBm);   // Write Power in case of error

    break;

    }

delay(100);

drawCustomKeypad();

}

 

///************************** ANALOG METER ***************************///

// #########################################################################

//  Draw the analogue meter on the screen

// #########################################################################

void analogMeter()

{

  // Meter outline

  tft.fillRect(0, 0, 239, 126, TFT_GREY);

  tft.fillRect(5, 3, 230, 119, TFT_WHITE);

 

  tft.setTextColor(TFT_BLACK);  // Text colour

 

  // Draw ticks every 5 degrees from -50 to +50 degrees (100 deg. FSD swing)

  for (int i = -50; i < 51; i += 5)

  {

    // Long scale tick length

    int tl = 15;

 

    // Coodinates of tick to draw

    float sx = cos((i - 90) * 0.0174532925);

    float sy = sin((i - 90) * 0.0174532925);

    uint16_t x0 = sx * (100 + tl) + 120;

    uint16_t y0 = sy * (100 + tl) + 140;

    uint16_t x1 = sx * 100 + 120;

    uint16_t y1 = sy * 100 + 140;

 

    // Coordinates of next tick for zone fill

    float sx2 = cos((i + 5 - 90) * 0.0174532925);

    float sy2 = sin((i + 5 - 90) * 0.0174532925);

    int x2 = sx2 * (100 + tl) + 120;

    int y2 = sy2 * (100 + tl) + 140;

    int x3 = sx2 * 100 + 120;

    int y3 = sy2 * 100 + 140;

 

    // Yellow zone limits

    if (i >= -50 && i < 0)

    {

      tft.fillTriangle(x0, y0, x1, y1, x2, y2, TFT_YELLOW);

      tft.fillTriangle(x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3, TFT_YELLOW);

    }

 

    // Green zone limits

    if (i >= 0 && i < 25)

    {

      tft.fillTriangle(x0, y0, x1, y1, x2, y2, TFT_GREEN);

      tft.fillTriangle(x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3, TFT_GREEN);

    }

 

    // Orange zone limits

    if (i >= 25 && i < 50)

    {

      tft.fillTriangle(x0, y0, x1, y1, x2, y2, TFT_ORANGE);

      tft.fillTriangle(x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3, TFT_ORANGE);

    }

 

    // Short scale tick length

    if (i % 25 != 0) tl = 8;

 

    // Recalculate coords incase tick lenght changed

    x0 = sx * (100 + tl) + 120;

    y0 = sy * (100 + tl) + 140;

    x1 = sx * 100 + 120;

    y1 = sy * 100 + 140;

 

    // Draw tick

    tft.drawLine(x0, y0, x1, y1, TFT_BLACK);

 

    // Check if labels should be drawn, with position tweaks

    if (i % 25 == 0)

    {

      // Calculate label positions

      x0 = sx * (100 + tl + 10) + 120;

      y0 = sy * (100 + tl + 10) + 140;

      switch (i / 25)

      {

        case -2: tft.drawCentreString("0", x0, y0 - 12, 2); break;

        case -1: tft.drawCentreString("25", x0, y0 - 9, 2); break;

        case 0: tft.drawCentreString("50", x0, y0 - 6, 2); break;

        case 1: tft.drawCentreString("75", x0, y0 - 9, 2); break;

        case 2: tft.drawCentreString("100", x0, y0 - 12, 2); break;

      }

    }

 

    // Now draw the arc of the scale

    sx = cos((i + 5 - 90) * 0.0174532925);

    sy = sin((i + 5 - 90) * 0.0174532925);

    x0 = sx * 100 + 120;

    y0 = sy * 100 + 140;

    // Draw scale arc, don't draw the last part

    if (i < 50) tft.drawLine(x0, y0, x1, y1, TFT_BLACK);

  }

 

  tft.drawString("dBm", 5 + 230 - 40, 119 - 20, 2); // Units at bottom right

  tft.drawCentreString("Level Meter", 120, 70, 2); // Comment out to avoid font 4

  tft.drawRect(5, 3, 230, 119, TFT_BLACK); // Draw bezel line

 

  plotNeedle(0, 0); // Put meter needle at 0

}

 

// #########################################################################

// Update needle position

// This function is blocking while needle moves, time depends on ms_delay

// 10ms minimises needle flicker if text is drawn within needle sweep area

// Smaller values OK if text not in sweep area, zero for instant movement but

// does not look realistic... (note: 100 increments for full scale deflection)

// #########################################################################

void plotNeedle(int value, byte ms_delay)

{

  tft.setTextColor(TFT_BLACK, TFT_WHITE);

  char buf[8]; dtostrf(value, 4, 0, buf);

  tft.drawRightString(buf, 40, 119 - 20, 2);

 

  if (value < -10) value = -10; // Limit value to emulate needle end stops

  if (value > 110) value = 110;

 

  // Move the needle util new value reached

  while (!(value == old_analog))

  {

    if (old_analog < value) old_analog++;

    else old_analog--;

 

    if (ms_delay == 0) old_analog = value; // Update immediately id delay is 0

 

    float sdeg = map(old_analog, -10, 110, -150, -30); // Map value to angle

    // Calcualte tip of needle coords

    float sx = cos(sdeg * 0.0174532925);

    float sy = sin(sdeg * 0.0174532925);

 

    // Calculate x delta of needle start (does not start at pivot point)

    float tx = tan((sdeg + 90) * 0.0174532925);

 

    // Erase old needle image

    tft.drawLine(120 + 20 * ltx - 1, 140 - 20, osx - 1, osy, TFT_WHITE);

    tft.drawLine(120 + 20 * ltx, 140 - 20, osx, osy, TFT_WHITE);

    tft.drawLine(120 + 20 * ltx + 1, 140 - 20, osx + 1, osy, TFT_WHITE);

 

    // Re-plot text under needle

    tft.setTextColor(TFT_BLACK);

    tft.drawCentreString("Level Meter", 120, 70, 2); // // Comment out to avoid font 4

 

    // Store new needle end coords for next erase

    ltx = tx;

    osx = sx * 98 + 120;

    osy = sy * 98 + 140;

 

    // Draw the needle in the new postion, magenta makes needle a bit bolder

    // draws 3 lines to thicken needle

    tft.drawLine(120 + 20 * ltx - 1, 140 - 20, osx - 1, osy, TFT_RED);

    tft.drawLine(120 + 20 * ltx, 140 - 20, osx, osy, TFT_MAGENTA);

    tft.drawLine(120 + 20 * ltx + 1, 140 - 20, osx + 1, osy, TFT_RED);

 

    // Slow needle down slightly as it approaches new postion

    if (abs(old_analog - value) < 10) ms_delay += ms_delay / 5;

 

    // Wait before next update

    delay(ms_delay);

  }

}

///************************** END OF PROGRAM *************************///

 

 

Logica programului:

Arhitectura programului este construita in jurul unui microcontroller cu 38 de pini din seria ESP32. Folosirea altui tip este permisa doar dupa verificarea si modificarea pinilor definiti in program!

 

1 – Biblioteci (Librarii) folosite:

            #include <WiFi.h>

            #include <SPI.h>

            #include <TFT_eSPI.h>       // Hardware-specific library

Folositi cele mai noi variante!

 

2 – Configurarea pinilor pentru display si initializarea acestuia:

 /*

// Pin configuration for the ILI9341 display/2.8inch & ESP32 S Dev Board

#define TFT_CS     5    // Pin-29 ESP32 "VSPISS" (GPIO_05)

#define TFT_DC     33   // PIN-8 ESP32 "ADC1_5" (GPIO_33)

//#define TFT_MISO 19     // MISO---> ESP32 pin 31 "VSPI_MISO" (GPIO_19)

#define TFT_MOSI   23   // MOSI---> ESP32 pin 37 "VSPI_MOSI" (GPIO_23)

#define TFT_SCK    18   // SCLK---> ESP32 pin 30 "VSP_ISCK"  (GPIO_18)

#define TFT_RST    32   // PIN-7 ESP32 "ADC1_4" (GPIO_32)

#define TOUCH_CS   27   // PIN-11 ESP32 "ADC2_7" (GPIO_27)

*/

Observati ca TFT_MISO nu este folosit! Atrag atentia ca pinii definiti aici, in program sunt comentati deoarece atribuirea lor se face intr-un fisier al bibliotecii numit “User_Setup.h”.

Asa ca pentru o reusita imediata urmati calea:   Program Files (x86) >> Arduino >> libraries >>TFT_eSPI-master >>  User_Setup.h,   unde inlocuiti secventa de cod originala cu aceasta:

========================================================================

// For ESP32 Dev board (only tested with ILI9341 display)

// The hardware SPI can be mapped to any pins

 

//#define TFT_MISO 19

#define TFT_MOSI 23

#define TFT_SCLK 18

#define TFT_CS    5   // Chip select control pin

#define TFT_DC   33   // Data Command control pin

#define TFT_RST  32   // Reset pin (could connect to RST pin)

//#define TFT_RST  32  // Set TFT_RST to -1 if display RESET is connected to ESP32 board RST

//#define TOUCH_CS 25     // Chip select pin (T_CS) of touch screen

#define TOUCH_CS 27     // Chip select pin (T_CS) of touch screen

// For ESP32 Dev board (only tested with GC9A01 display)

// The hardware SPI can be mapped to any pins

========================================================================

 

Initializare Display:

TFT_eSPI tft = TFT_eSPI();  // Invoke custom library

 

3 – Urmeaza o sectiune comentata unde sunt prezentate culorile disponibile pentru display-ul ILI9341.

/*

#define ILI9341_BLACK       0x0000

#define ILI9341_NAVY        0x000F

#define ILI9341_DARKGREEN   0x03E0

#define ILI9341_DARKCYAN    0x03EF

#define ILI9341_MAROON      0x7800

#define ILI9341_PURPLE      0x780F

#define ILI9341_OLIVE       0x7BE0

#define ILI9341_LIGHTGREY   0xC618

#define ILI9341_DARKGREY    0x7BEF

#define ILI9341_BLUE        0x001F

#define ILI9341_GREEN       0x07E0

#define ILI9341_CYAN        0x07FF

#define ILI9341_RED         0xF800

#define ILI9341_MAGENTA     0xF81F

#define ILI9341_YELLOW      0xFFE0

#define ILI9341_WHITE       0xFFFF

#define ILI9341_ORANGE      0xFD20

#define ILI9341_GREENYELLOW 0xAFE5

#define ILI9341_PINK        0xF81F

*/

Am incarcat prezentarea cu toate aceste informatii pentru a face mai usoara modificarea sau dezvoltarea softului in functie de necesitati si dorintele fiecaruia.

 

 

4 – Seria declaratiilor de mai jos au rolul de a pune la dispozitie programului toate informatiile necesare unei functionari corecte. Nu insist asupra acestora pentru ca sunt comentate intr-un mod usor de inteles.

 

#define TFT_GREY            0x5AEB

#define TEST_LED 15       // LED

const char* wifi_ssid = "Denumirea retelei locale WiFi";

const char* wifi_psw = "Parola retelei locale WiFi";

int16_t previousRSSI = 0;

//******************************//

 

// Keypad start position, key sizes and spacing

#define KEY_X 75          // Center of key W

#define KEY_Y 230         // Center of key Y

#define KEY_W 60          // Width of Keys

#define KEY_H 30          // Height of Keys

#define KEY_SPACING_X 5   // X gap !!!Used for multiple columns

#define KEY_SPACING_Y 5   // Y gap !!!Used for multiple rows

#define KEY_TEXTSIZE 1    // Font size multiplier

//******************************//

 

// Using two fonts since numbers are nice when bold

#define LABEL1_FONT &FreeSansOblique12pt7b    // Key label font 1

#define LABEL2_FONT &FreeSansBold12pt7b       // Key label font 2

 

// Create 9 keys for the keypad - Number of Keys / Maxim Number of Characters

char keyLabel[9][5] = {"-sta", "spk+", "sta+", "   ", "stop", "   ", "-pwr", "spk-", "pwr+"};

uint16_t keyColor[9] = {TFT_RED, TFT_ORANGE, TFT_DARKGREEN,TFT_BLACK, TFT_GREY, TFT_BLACK,TFT_BLUE, TFT_MAGENTA, TFT_NAVY};

 

// Invoke the TFT_eSPI button class and create all the button objects

TFT_eSPI_Button key[9];

WiFiServer server(80);

//******************************//

 

5 – Aceste informatii dau posibilitatea ca programul sa poata modifica puterea de emisie a dispozitivului WiFi cu care este dotata placa ESP32. Nu incercati sa folositi: WIFI_POWER_MINUS_1dBm, pentru ca veti avea surprize extrem de neplacute.

/*

   Available ESP32 RF power parameters:

   For 19.5dBm of output, highest. Supply current ~150mA

    WIFI_POWER_19_5dBm    // 19.5dBm  (80)

    WIFI_POWER_19dBm      // 19dBm    (78)

    WIFI_POWER_18_5dBm    // 18.5dBm  (72)

    WIFI_POWER_17dBm      // 17dBm    (66)

    WIFI_POWER_15dBm      // 15dBm    (60)

    WIFI_POWER_13dBm      // 13dBm    (52)

    WIFI_POWER_11dBm      // 11dBm    (44)

    WIFI_POWER_8_5dBm     //  8dBm    (34)

    WIFI_POWER_7dBm       //  7dBm    (28)

    WIFI_POWER_5dBm       //  5dBm    (20)

    WIFI_POWER_2dBm       //  2dBm    (8)

    WIFI_POWER_MINUS_1dBm // -1dBm    (NEVER USE FOR PROGRAMMING !!!)

   For -1dBm of output, lowest. Supply current ~120mA

*/

const int wifiPowerValues[] =

{

  WIFI_POWER_2dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_5dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_7dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_8_5dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_11dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_13dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_15dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_17dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_18_5dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_19dBm,

  WIFI_POWER_19_5dBm

};

 

const char* wifiPowerNames[] =

{

  "WIFI_POWER_2dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_5dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_7dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_8_5dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_11dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_13dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_15dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_17dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_18_5dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_19dBm",

  "WIFI_POWER_19_5dBm"

};

 

int IndexPower = 10; // Initial value for wifiPowerTx (0 to 10)

//int valueSearched = wifiPowerValues[IndexPower];     // Display Power in dBm

//const char* ConstPower = wifiPowerNames[IndexPower];  // Display the name of the constant

//******************************//

 

6– Urmeaza rutina “void setup()” in care dupa cateva setari, se propune calibrarea Touch Screen-ului, fara de care pozitia Butoanelor nu este recunoscuta corect.

 

void setup()

{

  Serial.begin(115200);         // For debug

  pinMode(TEST_LED, OUTPUT);

  tft.init();  // Inițializare ecran

  tft.setRotation(0);

  digitalWrite(TEST_LED, HIGH);

 

  // Calibrare Touch Screen

  uint16_t calibrationData[5];

  tft.fillScreen(TFT_WHITE);

  tft.setTextColor(TFT_RED);

  tft.setTextSize(2);

  tft.setCursor(40, 30, 2);

  tft.print("Calibration of");

  tft.setCursor(40, 70);

  tft.print("Display");

  tft.setTextColor(TFT_BLACK);

  tft.setCursor(40, 130);

  tft.print("Touch");

  tft.setCursor(40, 170);

  tft.print("the indicated");

  tft.setCursor(40, 210);

  tft.print("corners");

  tft.setCursor(40, 250);

  tft.print("to calibrate");

  tft.calibrateTouch(calibrationData, TFT_GREEN, TFT_RED, 15);

//******************************//

In continuare se pregatesc cateva mesaje pentru informarea stadiului diferitelor operatii, cea mai importanta fiind conectarea la reteaua WiFi.

 

  tft.fillScreen(TFT_BLACK);

  tft.setTextColor(TFT_WHITE);

  tft.setCursor(25, 80 ,2); // How many times the text set in the previous row is enlarged

  tft.print("Radio_Receiver");

  tft.setTextSize(1);

  tft.setCursor(10, 120, 2);

  tft.printf("Connecting to '%s'\n" , wifi_ssid, wifi_psw);

  delay(2000);

  tft.fillScreen(TFT_BLACK);

  tft.setTextColor(TFT_RED);

  tft.setTextSize(2);

  tft.setCursor(20, 80 ,1);

  tft.println("WIFI Connecting!");

  delay(1000);

  Connect_to_WiFi();

  digitalWrite(TEST_LED, HIGH);

  delay(3000);

  digitalWrite(TEST_LED, LOW);

  server.begin();           // Start the HTTP server

  delay(2000);

//******************************//

 

In finalul functiei setup(), se apeleaza rutina pentru tiparirea grupului de taste si a VU-metrului cu ac.

    tft.fillScreen(TFT_BLACK);

    drawCustomKeypad();

    analogMeter();          // Draw analogue meter

    updateTime = millis();  // Next update time

    digitalWrite(TEST_LED, HIGH);

}

 

 

7 – In continuare se afla rutina “void loop()” care ruleaza in bucla pentru gestionarea relatiei dintre

placa ESP32, display si alte periferice.

 

///****************************** LOOP *******************************///

void loop()

{

 

Acesta este codul care va tipari pe Display nivelul semnalului receptionat (RSSI) in dBm.

Culoarea textului se schimba odata cu pragul conventional de nivel, in Rosu, Alb si Verde,

ceea ce reprezinta: Semnal slab, Semnal bun si Semnal foarte bun.

 

  // Print the received signal strength:

  long rssi = WiFi.RSSI();

  Serial.print("RSSI:");

  Serial.println(rssi);

 

  int16_t currentRSSI = WiFi.RSSI();

  if (currentRSSI != previousRSSI)

  {

    if (rssi >= -50)

    {tft.setTextColor(TFT_GREEN);}

 

    else

    if (rssi >= -70 && rssi < -50)

    {tft.setTextColor(TFT_WHITE);}

 

    else

    {tft.setTextColor(TFT_RED);}

 

    if (rssi = 0)

      {

        tft.fillRect(185, 255, 40, 20, TFT_BLACK);

        tft.setTextColor(TFT_RED);

        tft.setCursor(198, 273);

        tft.print("0");

      }

   

    tft.fillRect(185, 255, 40, 20, TFT_BLACK);

    tft.setCursor(185, 273);

  tft.print(WiFi.RSSI()); // Display the signal value of the correspondent

  previousRSSI = currentRSSI;

  }

//******************************//

 

 

Urmeaza codul necesar baleajului permanent pentru acul indicator al Level Metrului.

Intr-o aplicatie reala, acest cod trebuie adaptat nevoilor fiecaruia dintre dumneavoastra.

O aplicatie viitoare va incerca constructia unui Walkie Talkie  cu programare si S-metru, imitand o combinatie retro intre o statii radio Half Duplex si un telefon mobil.

 

  if (updateTime <= millis())

  {

    updateTime = millis() + LOOP_PERIOD;

 

    d += 4; if (d >= 360) d = 0;

 

    //value[0] = map(analogRead(A0), 0, 1023, 0, 100); // Test with value form Analogue 0

 

    // Create a Sine wave for testing

    value[0] = 50 + 50 * sin((d + 0) * 0.0174532925);

    value[1] = 50 + 50 * sin((d + 60) * 0.0174532925);

    value[2] = 50 + 50 * sin((d + 120) * 0.0174532925);

    value[3] = 50 + 50 * sin((d + 180) * 0.0174532925);

    value[4] = 50 + 50 * sin((d + 240) * 0.0174532925);

    value[5] = 50 + 50 * sin((d + 300) * 0.0174532925);

 

    //unsigned long t = millis();

    plotNeedle(value[0], 0);

    //Serial.println(millis()-t); // Print time taken for meter update

  }

//******************************//

 

Aceasta este cea mai delicata portiune a rutinei “loop”, intrucat in interiorul ei se asigura verificarea apasatii Touch Screen-ului si precizia coordonatelor Butoanelor desenate.

Contine trimiteri doar catre rutinele de modificare a puterii de emisie, insa folosind aceste exemple se pot atribui functii suplimentare Butoanelor ramase libere.

Folosirea driverului TFT_eSPI.h este cea mai inspirata alegere pentru controlul Touch Screen-ului intrucat comparat cu driverul de la Adafruit, acesta are un filtru mai puternic impotriva erorilor.

 

// Testing the Touch Screen

  uint16_t t_x = 0, t_y = 0; // To store the touch coordinates

 

   // Pressed will be set true is there is a valid touch on the screen

    bool pressed = tft.getTouch(&t_x, &t_y);

 

    // Check if any key coordinate boxes contain the touch coordinates

    for (uint8_t b = 0; b < 9; b++)

    {

      if (pressed && key[b].contains(t_x, t_y))

    {key[b].press(true);}  // Tell the button it is pressed

 

    else

    {key[b].press(false);}  // Tell the button it is NOT pressed

    }

 

  // Add a check to execute the appropriate functions

  for (uint8_t b = 0; b < 9; b++)

  {

    if (key[b].justPressed())

    {

      if (b == 6) // RED Key

      {

      tft.fillRect(0, 175, 240, 35, TFT_BLACK);

      tft.setTextColor(TFT_BLUE);

      tft.setCursor(30, 200);

      tft.print("TouchDownButton!");

      TouchDownButton();

      }

 

      else if (b == 8) // NAVY Key

      {

      tft.fillRect(0, 175, 240, 35, TFT_BLACK);

      tft.setTextColor(TFT_NAVY);

      tft.setCursor(30, 200);

      tft.print("TouchUpButton!");

      TouchUpButton();

      }

 

// The routine can continue with Buttons: 0, 1, 2, 4 and 7

    }

 

      else if (key[b].justReleased())

      {

      tft.fillRect(0, 175, 240, 35, TFT_BLACK);

      tft.setTextColor(TFT_WHITE);

      tft.setCursor(30, 200);

      tft.print("NoTouchButton!");

    }

  }

}

 

8 – Rutinele folosite sunt bine structurate, delimitate si au urmatoarele denumiri si functii:

            - void drawCustomKeypad()

                        * Deseneaza toate Butoanele in functie de coordonatele centrului butonului “stop”.

                           Aceasta abordare face posibila mutarea pe display a intregii tastaturi, modificand                                      doar coordonatele acestuia.

                                    // Keypad start position, key sizes and spacing

                                    #define KEY_X 75          // Center of key W

                                    #define KEY_Y 230         // Center of key Y

                        * Afiseaza puterea WiFi stabilita din tastatura sau setata pe maxim la pornire.

            - void Connect_to_WiFi()

                        * Repeta incercarea de conectare la retea, in serii de cste 10 sec. pana cand este realizata.

                        * Afiseaza pentru cateva secunde IP-ul local, IP-ul routerului de retea si IP-un P2P.

            - void TouchDownButton() si void TouchUpButton()

                        * Asigura grafica corespunzatoare apasarii fiecarui buton si face trimitere catre executia                              functiilor stabilite prin program.

            - void writePower()

                        * Modifica Puterea WiFi pentru fiecare apasare a butoanelor “–pwr” si “pwr+”.

            - void analogMeter() si void plotNeedle(int value, byte ms_delay)

                        * Doua rutine care se ocupa cu grafica VU-metrului, S-metrului, Level Metrului sau cum

                        doriti dumneavoastra sa-l denumiti. Rutinele sunt usor de modificat pentru a acoperi o                              varietate mare de instrumente. Acul indicator are o miscare identica cu cea a unui                                     instrument real. Grafica este una dintre cele mai simple si reusite de pana acum.

 

Obsevatii finale:

Viteza de rulare a programului poate fi marita semnificativ prin comentarea cu doua linii oblice a tuturor instructiunilor din seria “Serial.print();”, folosite in special pentru debug.

Compilarea softului se face prin activarea icoanei  din meniul principal

al Arduino IDE. Incarcarea fisierului rezultat in mikrocontrollerul ESP32 se face prin conexiunea USB dupa ce portul de comunicatie a fost setat corespunzator pe ruta Tools > Port: “Com…”.

La aparitia mesajului:

   se apasarea timp de 3 - 5 sec. butonul Boot. pentru validarea incarcarii in memoria flash. Rezultatul este prezentat in urmatoarele doua fotografii:

 

                              

 

 

-          Este foarte important sa se faca o calibrare corecta pentru ca suprafata Butoanelor sa fie identificata cu precizie de Touch Screen.

-          Modificarea puterii de emisie WiFi se face prin tastarea “-pwr” si “pwr+”.

-          In partea superioara a tastaturii este afisata starea Butoanelor intr-un mod sugestiv si explicit.

-          Forma, culorile si schimbarile de stare sunt atribute care fac aplicatia placuta ochiului, ceea ce vine in completarea functionalitatii acestora.

Oricand cei interesati pot modifica, adapta sau dezvolta aplicatia de fata printr-o gestionare controlata a codului prezentat. Informatii deosebite puteti obtine si de la Inteligenta Artificiala prin Chat GPT :

https://chat.openai.com/. Pentru cei ce vor incerca, fac precizarea ca intrebarile se vor pune punctual.

Sprijinul meu poate consta in rezolvarea micilor icidente aparute pe parcursul incercarilor dumneavoastra sau prin oferta de explicatii suplimentare, atat cat imi permite experienta.

Asistenta se poate face la tel. 0742997202 sau prin e-mail: gocomraex@gmail.com

Best regards & 73!

Doru Sandu ex. YO9CXY

Articol aparut la 15-12-2023

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Inapoi la inceputul articolului

Comentarii (8)  

  • Postat de Dragan Aliodor - YO2BOF (yo2bof) la 2023-12-17 15:15:48 (ora Romaniei)
  • Excelent articolul. Multumim pentru idei. 73!

  • Postat de Florentin - YO9CHO (yo9cho) la 2023-12-20 09:05:45 (ora Romaniei)
  • Ce mai faci tu mai Dorule? :-)

  • Postat de Doru Sandu - YO9CXY (yo9cxy) la 2023-12-21 23:16:27 (ora Romaniei)
  • Pentru YO9CHO
    Incerc sa tin pasul cu vremurile, greu dar asta e.
    Multumesc de intrebare, as fi vrut sa te mai vad!!!
    Pe cand in tara?
    73 de ex.YO9CXY!

  • Postat de Doru Sandu - YO9CXY (yo9cxy) la 2023-12-21 23:20:28 (ora Romaniei)
  • Pentru YO2BOF
    Multumesc!
    Daca aveti nevoie de explicatii, sunt aici.
    73 de ex.YO9CXY!

  • Postat de Catalin Ursu - YO3CLU (yo3clu) la 2023-12-30 23:42:18 (ora Romaniei)
  • Se pare ca ne-am intors in timp, cand programele erau tiparite pe hartie (HC-85). Nu era mai simplu sa uploadati fisierele sursa decat sa le listati?

  • Postat de Doru Sandu - YO9CXY (yo9cxy) la 2023-12-31 12:03:28 (ora Romaniei)
  • Pentru YO3CLU
    Multumesc pentu observatie dar se pare ca nu s-a inteles comentariul de la inceput, mi-a trecut spaima ca ceva este gresit in text. Articolul nu se vrea o realizare nemaipomenita, este pe langa ceva inedit, ceva ce vrea sa fie o "lectie" de cum se poate realiza un program in interesul fiecaruia. Aici sunt observatii si lamuriri pe care cu greu ati putea sa le gasiti impreuna in alta parte. Scuteste cautarile celui care doreste mai mult decat sa copieze munca cuiva. Eu nu prea cred in "Scoala online", asa ca pentru cine doreste sa invete e bine sa aiba ceva scris.
    Cum am fi aflat noi ceva despre trecut daca nu existau Tablitele Sumeriene? Ma-ndoiesc ca niste "fisiere" ne-ar mai fi fost de un real folos!
    La multi ani!
    Best 73!
    ex.YO9CXY

  • Postat de Francisc VISKY - YO2MHF (yo2mhf) la 2024-01-23 09:58:54 (ora Romaniei)
  • Excelent articol! Mulțumesc!

  • Postat de Doru Sandu - YO9CXY (yo9cxy) la 2024-01-23 14:07:15 (ora Romaniei)
  • Pentru YO2MHF,
    Multumesc, daca va este de folos ma bucur.
    73 de ex.YO9CXY!!!

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